HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

The Hyper­text Trans­fer Pro­to­col (HTTP) is a stan­dard­ized appli­ca­tion lay­er pro­to­col for dis­trib­uted and col­lab­o­ra­tive, hyper­me­dia infor­ma­tion systems.

Along­side HTML, HTTP facil­i­tat­ed the devel­op­ment of orig­i­nal World Wide Web, the first inter­ac­tive, text-based web browser.

  • HTTP inte­grates hyper­links in its hyper­text doc­u­ments to pro­vide easy access to fur­ther resources, a cru­cial func­tion in the suc­cess of the World Wide Web.
  • HTTP func­tions as a request–response pro­to­col in a client–server archi­tec­ture. An exam­ple would be web browsers (client) and web host­ing appli­ca­tions (serv­er).
  • The client sends the HTTP request mes­sage to the serv­er. The serv­er returns a response con­tain­ing the request’s com­ple­tion sta­tus and may also con­tain request­ed con­tent in its mes­sage body.
  • HTTP is an appli­ca­tion lay­er pro­to­col of the IP suite. Its def­i­n­i­tion demands an under­ly­ing and reli­able trans­port lay­er pro­to­col, with Trans­mis­sion Con­trol Pro­to­col (TCP) as the usu­al choice. Still, HTTP can be adapt­ed to use unre­li­able pro­to­cols such as the User Data­gram Pro­to­col (UDP), as in Sim­ple Ser­vice Dis­cov­ery Pro­to­col (SSDP) and in HTTPU.
  • HTTP resources are iden­ti­fied and locat­ed on the net­work with Uni­form Resource Loca­tors (URLs), using the Uni­form Resource Iden­ti­fiers (URI’s) schemes http and https. URIs are encod­ed as hyper­links in HTML doc­u­ments in order to inter­link hyper­text documents.
  • HTTP/1.1 is a revi­sion of the orig­i­nal HTTP/1.0, which required to make a sep­a­rate con­nec­tion to the same serv­er for every resource request. HTTP/1.1 can reuse a con­nec­tion mul­ti­ple times after the page has been deliv­ered, which improves the laten­cy as estab­lish­ing TCP con­nec­tions caus­es a con­sid­er­able overhead.
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      IP Protocols

      The Address Res­o­lu­tion Pro­to­col (ARP) is a com­mu­ni­ca­tion pro­to­col used for dis­cov­er­ing the link lay­er address (e.g. MAC address) that is asso­ci­at­ed with a giv­en inter­net lay­er address, com­mon­ly IPv4.

      The map­ping func­tion pro­vid­ed by ARP is crit­i­cal to the Inter­net pro­to­col suite and has been imple­ment­ed with many com­bi­na­tions of net­work and data link lay­er tech­nolo­gies, such as IPv4, Chaos­net and DEC­net using IEEE 802 stan­dards, FDDI, X.25 and Frame Relay amongst others.

      The File Trans­fer Pro­to­col (FTP) stan­dard defines an appli­ca­tion lay­er net­work pro­to­col to trans­fer files from a serv­er to a client on a com­put­er network.

      FTP is based on a client-serv­er mod­el archi­tec­ture using sep­a­rate con­trol and data con­nec­tions between client and server.

      The Hyper­text Trans­fer Pro­to­col (HTTP) is a stan­dard­ized appli­ca­tion lay­er pro­to­col for dis­trib­uted and col­lab­o­ra­tive, hyper­me­dia infor­ma­tion systems.

      Along­side HTML, HTTP facil­i­tat­ed the devel­op­ment of orig­i­nal World Wide Web, the first inter­ac­tive, text-based web browser.

      IP rout­ing encom­pass­es dif­fer­ent method­olo­gies to route Inter­net Pro­to­col (IP) pack­ets with­in and across IP net­works by deter­min­ing a suit­able path to trans­fer net­work pack­ets between source and des­ti­na­tion nodes in and across IP networks.

      IP Rout­ing pro­to­cols enable routers to build up a for­ward­ing table that cor­re­lates final des­ti­na­tions with next hop addresses.

      The Trans­mis­sion Con­trol Pro­to­col (TCP) is one of the main pro­to­cols of the Inter­net pro­to­col suite pro­vid­ing reli­able, ordered, and error-checked byte stream deliv­er­ies between host­ing appli­ca­tions com­mu­ni­cat­ing through an IP network.

      Locat­ed in the Trans­port Lay­er of the TCP/IP suite, major inter­net appli­ca­tions such as the World Wide Web, email, SSL/TLS and file trans­fers rely on or run on top of TCP.

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      iGrid has exten­sive expe­ri­ence in work­ing with Eth­er­net and also the IP pro­to­col suite, enc­pa­su­lat­ing, trans­fer­ing, map­ping and con­vert­ing data and pro­to­cols accross many archi­tec­tures, net­works and appli­ca­tion types.

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